Free-Cutting Steels

Free-Cutting Steel

The steels for high-speed machining, commonly called free-cutting steels, have been specially designed to be machined by chip removal with high productivity.

Free-cutting steels – which are commonly used in many mass production fields such as the automobile industry and household appliances – contain sulfur and some other elements, including tellurium, bismuth and lead, which promote machinability.

In particular, the sulfur ensures the fragmentation of the chip, lead reduces the friction between the tool and piece, extending the life of the tools, and the tellurium and bismuth further accentuate these characteristics. Free-cutting steels are usually supplied in bars or rolls without heat treatment; some of these can however be tempered, normalized or annealed before finishing.

Range of Production

Execution Profile Range
[mm]
Finish Tolerances
Bars Rolled Round 20-105 Raw
Peeled iron product
Drawn Round
Hexagonal
Square
Special
2-80
4-80
4-70
Polished EN 10278
h9
h10
h11
Peeled

Rolled
Round 20-100 Polished EN 10278
h9
h10
h11
Ground Round 3-100 Polished EN 10278
h7
h8
h9
h10
h11
Coils Drawn Round
Hexagonal
Square
Special
2-22
3-12
4-12
Polished
Phosphated
EN 10278
h9
h10
h11
Execution Profile Range
[mm]
Finish Tolerances
Bars Rolled Round 20-105 Raw
Peeled iron product
Drawn Round
Hexagonal
Square
Special
2-80
4-80
4-70
Polished EN 10278
h9
h10
h11
Peeled

Rolled
Round 20-100 Polished EN 10278
h9
h10
h11
Ground Round 3-100 Polished EN 10278
h7
h8
h9
h10
h11
Coils Drawn Round
Hexagonal
Square
Special
2-22
3-12
4-12
Polished
Phosphated
EN 10278
h9
h10
h11
Quality WNr. Description Pdf
11SMn30 1.0715 Steel with the addition of sulfur only, with good machinability.
11SMn37 1.0736 Steel with the addition of sulfur only, in higher quantities than in 11SMn30; increased machinability at the expense of a slightly more accentuated fragility
11SMnPb30 1.0718 Free-cutting steel with the addition of lead to increase chip removal productivity. It is the most common type in Germany. Good machinability.
11SMnPb37 1.0737 Free-cutting steel with the addition of lead similar to the previous one, but with a higher sulfur content. It is the most common type in Italy and France. Excellent machinability.The Telyx version has a further improved machinability with respect to PS113.
11SMnPb30+Te+Bi 1.0718 Steel with the addition of sulfur, lead, tellurium, and bismuth; allows a very high cutting speed of the tool with excellent finishes. Also has a particular cold deformability.
11SMnPb37+Te+Bi 1.0737 Steel similar to the previous one, but with a higher sulfur content; reaches the maximum levels of machinability, combining all of the advantages tied to productivity in a single product.
28SMnPb28 This steel is not unified in the standards. It is used when you want to obtain a mechanical resistance of circa 600 MPa, not achievable with other low-carbon free-cutting steels, while maintaining good machinability. Not suitable for heat treatments.
Quality WNr. Description Pdf
10SPb20 1.0722 The most widespread carburized free-cutting steel; the addition of silicon guarantees the uniformity of the austenitic grain, while the limited percentage of sulfur allows a successful hardening treatment after carburizing.
Quality WNr. Description Pdf
35S20 1.0726 Steel with low carbon content and with the addition of sulfur for improved machinability.
46S20 1.0727 Steel with the addition of sulfur only; the higher carbon content gives this quenched and tempered steel greater mechanical characteristics.
38SMn28+Se 1.0760 Free-cutting steel with an average carbon content; the addition of tellurium allows an even better machinability.
44SMn28 1.0762 Free-cutting steel with sulfur only, with a high carbon content to obtain optimal hardness after tempering.
44SMnPb28 1.0763 Steel with the addition of sulfur and lead; the special carbon content allows excellent hardness to be obtained after tempering.
36SMnPb14 1.0765 Classic quenched and tempered free-cutting steel with the addition of sulfur and lead. The SAE1137Pb version, with the same composition, has a slightly higher temperability and is used for products delivered at the quenched and tempered state.
Quality WNr. Description Pdf
11SMn30 1.0715 Steel with the addition of sulfur only, with good machinability.
11SMn37 1.0736 Steel with the addition of sulfur only, in higher quantities than in 11SMn30; increased machinability at the expense of a slightly more accentuated fragility
11SMnPb30 1.0718 Free-cutting steel with the addition of lead to increase chip removal productivity. It is the most common type in Germany. Good machinability.
11SMnPb37 1.0737 Free-cutting steel with the addition of lead similar to the previous one, but with a higher sulfur content. It is the most common type in Italy and France. Excellent machinability.The Telyx version has a further improved machinability with respect to PS113.
11SMnPb30+Te+Bi 1.0718 Steel with the addition of sulfur, lead, tellurium, and bismuth; allows a very high cutting speed of the tool with excellent finishes. Also has a particular cold deformability.
11SMnPb37+Te+Bi 1.0737 Steel similar to the previous one, but with a higher sulfur content; reaches the maximum levels of machinability, combining all of the advantages tied to productivity in a single product.
28SMnPb28 This steel is not unified in the standards. It is used when you want to obtain a mechanical resistance of circa 600 MPa, not achievable with other low-carbon free-cutting steels, while maintaining good machinability. Not suitable for heat treatments.
Quality WNr. Description Pdf
10SPb20 1.0722 The most widespread carburized free-cutting steel; the addition of silicon guarantees the uniformity of the austenitic grain, while the limited percentage of sulfur allows a successful hardening treatment after carburizing.
Quality WNr. Description Pdf
35S20 1.0726 Steel with low carbon content and with the addition of sulfur for improved machinability.
46S20 1.0727 Steel with the addition of sulfur only; the higher carbon content gives this quenched and tempered steel greater mechanical characteristics.
38SMn28+Se 1.0760 Free-cutting steel with an average carbon content; the addition of tellurium allows an even better machinability.
44SMn28 1.0762 Free-cutting steel with sulfur only, with a high carbon content to obtain optimal hardness after tempering.
44SMnPb28 1.0763 Steel with the addition of sulfur and lead; the special carbon content allows excellent hardness to be obtained after tempering.
36SMnPb14 1.0765 Classic quenched and tempered free-cutting steel with the addition of sulfur and lead. The SAE1137Pb version, with the same composition, has a slightly higher temperability and is used for products delivered at the quenched and tempered state.

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